Increasing trend of urban flooding is a universal phenomenon and poses a great challenge to city administration and urban planners the world over. Problems associated with urban floods range from relatively localized incidents to major incidents, resulting in cities being inundated from a few hours to several days. Therefore, the impact can also be widespread, including temporary relocation of people, damage to civic amenities, deterioration of water quality and risk of epidemics. The problems posed by urban flooding are quite challenging and aggravate with continuous climate change, with its adverse impact affecting variation in rainfall and intra-city /intra-region disparities in the distribution of rainfall.
Floods can be defined as ‘the submergence of usually dry area by a large amount of water that comes from sudden excessive rainfall, an overflowing river or lake, melting snow or an exceptionally high tide’.
Floods has multiple effects on human society. They are as follows.
There has been an increasing trend of urban flood disasters in India over the past several years whereby major cities in India have been severely affected.
The most notable amongst them are Hyderabad in 2000, Ahmedabad in 2001, Delhi in 2002 and 2003, Chennai in 2004, Mumbai in 2005, Surat in 2006, Kolkata in 2007, Jamshedpur in 2008, Delhi in 2009 and Guwahati and Delhi in 2010. The most recent devastating ones were Srinagar in 2014 and Chennai in 2015.
In order to check the threat of urban flooding, each city should have their Flood mitigation plans (floodplain, river basin, surface water, etc.) strongly embedded within the overall land use policy and master planning of a city. A prompt, well-coordinated and effective response mounted in the aftermath of urban floods not only minimizes casualties and loss of property but also facilitates early recovery.
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) is a predefined set of directives. In general terms SOPs can be defined as “A set of directives, covering those features of operations that lend themselves to a definite or standardized procedure”. Such procedures are applicable unless prescribed otherwise in a particular case. In terms of disaster management, a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) is a set of written instructions that is to be followed by an organization to mitigate and manage any disastrous event.
Realizing the aftermath of urban flooding and the actions to be taken to mitigate the disaster, there is a need for clear cut Standard Operating Procedures for mitigating Urban Flooding. A Model SOP which is an indicative SOP Document has been issued by the Ministry of Urban Development for the guidance of States and UT Administrations for preparation of their city specific SOPs. The SOP lays down, in a comprehensive manner, the specific actions required to be undertaken by various departments and agencies in a city/town and also organizations under the district administration as well as State Government for responding to urban flooding/disaster of any magnitude.
Last Modified : 11/16/2023
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