It is the responsibility of the State Governments to ensure that sufficient Child Care Institutions (CCI) are established by them for Children in conflict with law (CCL) as per the JJ Act, 2015 and JJ Model Rules, 2016. The JJ Act, 2015 and JJ Model Rules, 2016 specifically mentions setting up of CCIs specially for CCL such as an Observation Home, Special Home and Place of Safety. The JJ Model Rules, 2016 further lays down specific guidelines for providing infrastructure and physical facilities to the children in the CCI. It is important that at the time of setting up of a CCI for CCL the design and the layout is made by professionals keeping in mind special requirements of the children with special needs which may include facilities such as barrier free & accessible spaces, emotional counselling, physical spaces and medical /surgical attention as appropriate etc.
The following shall be considered for setting up of a CCI for CCL.
Location of CCI
- An alleged CCL must be transferred to a CCI closest to his/her place of residence.
- The Child Care Institutions shall be child-friendly and in no way shall they look like a jail or lock - up. A CCI should be centrally located, easily accessible with good connectivity to public transport services.
- The CCI should be situated in close proximity with the JJB to facilitate quick, hassle-free, and safe travel for the alleged/CCL and CCI functionaries to travel from the CCI to the JJB and back at the time of production/hearing in the JJB.
- The OH should be located within a community to facilitate maximum interaction between alleged CCL and the community. The location must allow easy access to resources i.e. hospitals, police-station, bus stand, railway station, fire station, parks, schools, vocational training centres, residential areas, so as to not give children the feeling that they are isolated in a prison- like setting.
- The CCI should also be located in an area which is connected to public utilities such as full time water supply, proper sewage disposal system and sufficient electricity etc.
- The external environment around where the CCI is located should be safe. For instance, it should be at a safe distance from water bodies, crematoriums, burial grounds, cliffs, dams, factories and power plants etc.
Area and capacity of the institution
Building and grounds
Building and grounds (dimensions, construction materials etc. should be as per JJ Model Rules, 2016). The suggested norms for building or accommodation in each institution with 50 children may be as under:
|Item for Construction
|Area in Sq. ft.
|Each 1000 Sq. Ft. for 25 juveniles/children i.e., 2000 Sq.Ft.
|300 Sq. Ft. For 25 juveniles/children i.e.600 Sq. Ft.
|Sickroom/First aid room
|75 Sq. ft. per juvenile/children for 10 i.e. 750 Sq. ft.
|250 Sq. ft.
|800 Sq. ft.
|250 Sq. ft.
|300 Sq. ft.
|500 Sq. ft.
|5 bath rooms
|25 Sq. ft each i.e. 125 Sq. ft.
|25 Sq. ft each i.e. 200 Sq. ft.
|a) 300 Sq. ft.
b) Superintendent‘s room 200 sq. fit
|Counselling and guidance room
|120 Sq. ft.
|1125 Sq. ft. For 15 juvenile @75 Sq. ft. Per trainee
|Residence for Superintendent
|(a) 2 rooms of 250 Sq. ft. each
(b) Kitchen 75 Sq. ft.
1 bathroom-cum -Toilet/latrine 50 Sq. ft.
|2 Rooms for Juvenile Justice Board / Child welfare committee
|300 Sq. ft. each i.e.600 Sq.ft
|8495 Sq. ft.
- The Reception Unit is the first space that a child comes in contact with on his/her entry into the CCI. It should give the child a sense of respect, self - worth and dignity.
- A CCL at the time of his admission in the OH shall be first received at the reception area while the admission formalities are being conducted.
- Every child shall be received by the Person-in-charge of the Child Care Institution or such other official duly authorised by the Person-in-charge to receive a child, referred to as the Receiving Officer.
- The Receiving Officer shall satisfy himself as regards the identity of the child and in case of any doubt, the Receiving Officer shall promptly inform the Person-in-charge who shall forthwith inform the Board and produce the child before the Board without any delay. Every child received in the Child Care Institution shall be kept for the first fourteen days of his stay in the reception dormitory made specifically for the purpose or the segregation unit, so that the child adjust to the life in the Child Care Institution.
- Objectives of a Reception Unit within the CCI are:
- to receive children and treat them with dignity and care.
- give children the space to come to terms with institutional care in the CCI.
- provide an orientation to the CCI environment-objectives of care in the CCI, their entitlements, responsibilities and expectations from the child.
- to cater to the immediate needs of the child and to begin the process of rapport building, understanding, and counseling the child.
- The reception unit should consist of a reception area, equipped with adequate table space, seating space, and storage, registers, files etc.; dormitory with toilet and bathing area.
- The reception area should be equipped with graphic display material, which would help the child and those accompanying him/her understand the role of the CCI, the expectations from the child, routine to be observed, code of conduct for staff, children and visitors, available redressal mechanisms.
- The visiting and movement register should be kept at the reception desk.
- The person managing the reception unit should take permission from the Person-in-charge before allowing a visitor to enter the premises.
- Every CCI should have an office space where all the staff of a CCI have a designated place to sit during work hours.
- Every CCI shall have a visiting area meant for the purpose of meetings of CCL with their parents/guardians/relatives.
- The visiting area should have the provision to provide privacy to the CCL and his/her parents/guardians/relatives.
- The Reception Unit and visiting area though situated in the OH premises should be separate from the main building.
Dormitories are lodging spaces for alleged CCL. There must also have space for lockers and storage of personal belongings.
- Every CCI shall have minimum 1000 sq. ft. allocated to a dormitory for 25 children.
- The dormitories should have provision of adequate beds, bedding and storage units at the rate of 1 unit of bed, bedding, and locker per child per dormitory.
- The storage lockers may be in the dormitory or in a separate but accessible area.
- The dormitories shall have sufficient provisions for protection from mosquitoes by providing mosquito nets or repellants.
- They should be provision for sufficient drinking water available for children in near the dormitories.
- The dormitories should be equipped with sufficient fans, coolers and heaters to be used as per the weather requirement.
- There should be 2 toilets and a bathroom attached to a doimitory of 50 children for use during the night/emergency use. The dormitories should be fitted with an alarm system, emergency lights and fire - fighting equipment which can be used in case of emergencies.
Bathing, laundry and toilet facilities
- Every CCI shall have adequate separate well-lit and airy toilets with proper fitted bathing, toilet and laundry facility. There shall be 8 toilets and 5 bathing rooms per unit of 50 children.
- Every CCI shall have sufficient water including hot water for bathing and washing clothes.
- The bathing and toilet facilities shall have doors to ensure privacy and dignity of the children. The bathing, toilet and laundry facilities shall have adequate supply of water and adequate supply of soap, shampoo etc.
- The laundry area shall be equipped with a washing machine, as far as possible, have space for drying clothes with adequate sunlight and ventilation for clothes to dry and to be aired.
- In case of shortage of water or irregular supply of water, there shall be water storage containers in bathing, toilet and laundry area.
- CCL shall follow a time schedule for using the bathroom and toilet facilities in the morning to ensure that everybody is ready in time for their respective routines/classes.
- The above time schedule shall be stuck outside the bathroom facility and in the dormitories to avoid any confusion and fights among the children.
Kitchen - cooking, storage and area for washing utensils
- Every CCI shall have a kitchen area that consists of separate and adequate space for cooking, storage of food supplies and a separate area for washing and drying of utensils.
- Every kitchen in CCI shall be equipped with a functional fridge, oven and a chimney.
- Kitchen premises shall be kept clean and fly-proof.
- There shall be adequate counter tops, space for storage of gas cylinders in and not in use, so that food can be cooked safely.
- Kitchens shall be equipped with an adequate number of exhaust fans.
- There shall be adequate number of utensils to cook and store food in, plates, cups and glasses for the use of children and staff.
- The washing space for utensils shall have adequate water, soap and scrub for washing utensils.
- Proper washing of vegetables and fruits and hygienic manner of preparing food.
- Cleaning of the kitchen slabs, floor and gas after every meal.
- Clean and pest proof store for maintaining food articles and other supplies.
- Every CCI shall have a store room that is equipped with almirahs and shelves to store monthly ration stock such as rice, grains, vegetables etc.
- The store room should have sufficient space for keeping utensils and other necessary kitchen items.
- The other essential items for use of children may also be kept in the store room.
- Every CCI shall have a common dining area where children gather for meals daily.
- It shall be as far as possible, be well ventilated with natural light. The dining area shall have adequate seating arrangements with table and sitting space for each child.
- The dining area shall have a washing area with running water and soap available.
- They should be provision for sufficient drinking water available for children in the dining area.
- The dining hall should be equipped with sufficient fans, coolers to be used during summer.
- Every CCI shall have adequate study rooms that are accessible to children during study hours.
- The Study room shall have adequate provision of the following:
- lighting – natural and artificial.
- desks and chairs for the use of CCL.
- the study room shall be located in a quiet part of the CCI premises.
- the study room shall be nicely decorated with posters and charts and it should look child friendly.
- the study room shall be equipped with computers and internet facilities.
Library and audio visual room
- Every CCI shall have a library with adequate books both of academic and leisure pursuit.
- The library must have adequate desks and chairs, fans and lights to enable children to read comfortably.
- The library shall have a system which enables children to borrow and return books. Children should assist CCI staff with managing the system.
- The routine of CCL in CCI shall include the following to encourage reading among children.
- at least two hours of library time every week.
- encourage book reading/movie clubs where children can discuss and reflect on books read and movies watched.
Ventilation and natural light
- Every CCI shall have adequate ventilation which enables the access to fresh and natural light.
- Every CCI shall have adequate arrangement of artificial lighting that should be sufficient for the CCL to read, write and carry out their routine in the absence of access to natural light.
- Every CCI shall have adequate heating and cooling arrangements depending on climatic conditions.
Recreation spaces - indoor and outdoor
Indoor recreation spaces
- Every CCI shall have at least one room which is meant for indoor recreation activities like music, dance, yoga, indoor games etc.
- The recreation room shall have adequate storage area to store the materials required for the purpose of the recreation activities offered in the CCI.
- The recreation room shall be fitted with a TV with cable connection where children are allowed to watch a pre-selected list of channels during fixed hours as part of their daily routine.
Outdoor recreation spaces
- Every CCI shall have an open outdoor space for outdoor recreation activities like physical exercise, outdoor sports etc.
- The space for outdoor recreation shall be demarcated with boundaries which is safe for children. The materials used should be non-toxic, rust free so that no harm is caused to them while at play.
- There shall be sufficient sports equipment and a place to store it.
- Every CCI shall have a sickroom/medical room which the CCL can access when he/she needs to be administered first aid, or is unwell and needs proper rest.
- The medical room shall have a first aid kit.
- The medical room shall have arrangement of adequate beds,, a desk, chair and stools.
- The medical room shall have adequate storage to be used for medical supplies and equipment.
- The medical room shall have an attached bathroom.
- The routine monthly medical check-up shall happen in the medical room.
Counselling and Guidance room
- Every CCI shall have at least one room which is demarcated for counselling and conference sessions.
- The Counselling/conference room shall have a desk and chairs.
- The Counselling and guidance room should be in one corner of the CCI so that it is noise free and peaceful.
Quarantine room for children with communicable diseases
- Every CCI shall have an isolated room for children presented with symptoms of communicable diseases like chicken pox. The CCL shall be kept in quarantine after consultation with a medical officer for a time specified by him.
- The quarantine room shall have the following:
- Bed and bedding.
- An attached bathroom with running water.
- A desk and a chair.
- Fumigation of a sick room or quarantine room after every discharge in case of contagious or infectious disease.
- The water used for drinking shall be filtered and treated before use.
- Every CCI shall install RO water filters for the above purpose.
- Every CCI shall have access to safe drinking water at all hours.
- In case, the water is supplied at certain hours, arrangement shall be made to store adequate water.
- Drinking water storage filters shall be available on each floor and located at a place that is within the reach of all CCL.
Disinfection of wells and drinking water storage tanks
- If the drinking water is being drawn from a well, the well shall be disinfected every quarter.
- If the drinking water is being stored in a central tank from where it is supplied to taps/drinking water filters, such storage tanks shall be disinfected every quarter.
- The wells and all storage tanks shall be properly covered at all times.
- There shall be a routine inspection of the wells and storage tanks by the Person-in-charge every month.
Disaster risk reduction infrastructure, materials and equipment
Every CCI shall have a disaster risk management plan that should identify and address disaster/risk situations in CCIs vis-a-vis internal and external factors.
- Every CCI shall have fire extinguishers in the kitchen, dormitories, store rooms, counselling rooms.
- Each floor of the building shall contain a fire extinguisher.
- CCL and the CCI staff shall be trained in operating the fire extinguisher in case there is a fire breakout. Fire safety drills to be conducted every six months.
- Every CCI building shall have separate emergency exits and evacuation routes.
- The evacuation routes shall be clearly displayed and marked to help the CCL and the staff in evacuation during an emergency situation.
- There shall be a clearly drafted evacuation process which should guide the CCL and duty bearers during the time of an emergency evacuation.
- During the induction and orientation when the CCL is being familiarized with the premises, he/she should be shown and told about the evacuation route procedure. The staff should also be familarise with the same.
- Every CCI should have a fortified room where CCL and staff can take shelter in during an external attack, break in or any other threat.
- The safe rooms should have enough storage facilities to stock up essentials for a minimum period of 7 days.
- Emergency food and medical supplies:
- At least 7 days of dry ration at any given point and which should only be used during emergency situations.
- Emergency medical supplies and a first aid box.
Emergency lighting and electricity supply
- Every CCI shall have sufficient emergency lights which should always be kept charged and ready to use in case of a power failure.
- Every CCI shall have power back up/inverters/generators.
Sanitation and hygiene of the premises
- All spaces in the CCI to be swept and mopped once every day.
- Cleaning or washing of the toilets and bathrooms twice every day.
- Disinfection of the beddings at least once a year.
- Every CCI shall have sufficient water for maintenance and cleanliness of the premises.
- Every CCI shall have proper drainage system.
- Every CCI shall have arrangements for disposal of waste.
- There shall be garbage bins for each floor.
- The garbage bins shall be emptied every day.
- Every CCI shall have a monthly pest control for the premises.
- Scheduled cleaning of the premises.
- Apart from daily cleaning routine of the premises, there shall be collaboration with cleaning services to arrange intensive cleaning sessions quarterly. Besides regular cleaning of the premises, such a cleaning should also include the cleaning of fans, removal of cobwebs, cleaning of taps and door handles etc.
- The CCIs Management may also plan for special Swachhta Programme on holidays, national holidays and festivals. The children may also be involved in daily cleaning of the CCI and through this a habit of cleanliness may be inculcated in them.
Clothing, bedding, Toiletries and other articles
Source : Living conditions in institutions for children in conflict with law - A manual by Ministry of Women and Child Development
- The clothing and bedding shall be as per the scale and climatic conditions.
- The requirements of each child and the minimum standards for clothing, bedding, toiletries and other articles shall be as laid down in Rule 30 of JJ Model Rules, 2016.