Nuapada District belongs to state of Odisha, India. The District is located in the western part of Odisha. Nuapada District was created on 1st April 1993 by carving out of undivided Kalahandi District with an area of 3,852 Sq. Kms.
It lies between 20 degree N and 21 degree 5’ latitude and 82 degree 40’ E longitude. The boundaries of Nuapada extends in the north, west and south to Raipur District of Chattishgarh and in the east to Bargarh, Balangir and Kalahandi Districts of Odisha. This district is spread over in an area of 3,852 sqare K.m.
The District of Nuapada was a part of Undivided Kalahandi District till early March 1993, but for the administrative convenience, Kalahandi District was divided into two parts i.e. Kalahandi and Nuapada vide State Government Notification No. DRC-44/93/14218/R. dated 27 March 1993. Present Nuapada District comprises one sub-division (Nuapada), five Tahsils (Nuapada, Khariar, Komna, Boden and Sinapali) and five Blocks (Khariar, Sinapalli, Boden, Nuapada and Komna).
it consists of 670 nos. of Revenue villages having population of 6,10,382 as per 2011 census. The total no. of rural households in the District is 1,44,299 as per the 2011 census. Total no. of BPL families is 99,465 in the District,which is 78% of the total population. As per the administrative is concerned there are 131 G.Ps, 3 N.A.Cs and 10 Police Stations. The total Scheduled Caste (SC) population of the District is 82,159 and Scheduled Tribe (ST) population is 2,06,327, which comprise 13.46 % and 33.80 % respectively of the total population.
The plains of Naupada subdivision fringed by rugged hill ranges stretch southward, which belong to the main line of the Eastern Ghats and contains extensive plateaus of about 4000 ft (1200 m) in elevation with long tropical grass grown over them. They contain mineral deposits such as laterite, graphite and bauxite. The hill sides rising up precipitously from the plains are covered with dense sal forests. The forests of the District are managed under Forest Division named as Khariar Division. According to the composition of forests in the District, it can be classified into Sal forests, Teak forests, miscellaneous forests.There are other forest species such as Teak and Bamboo. All these are situated in the dry deciduous forest zone. Timber is by far the major forest products and Sal is no doubt, a major constituent of these products. Other important species of Nuapada forests, are Bija, Asan, Bandhan.
There are some other minor forest produces of this region which include Kendu leaf, Broom-grass, Mohua flower and Its seed, Antia bark and Sabai-grass. Timber, Bamboo and kendu leaf are the major produces which are exported outside of the state.
Nuapada district has basically an agrarian and forest economy. Much of the population depends on agriculture and forest. They live in subsistence economy in the absence of any alternative sources of meaningful employment.
The lives of the rural people revolve around natural resources. Its management has a lot to do on their lives. Their livelihood is determined largely by the Non-Timber Forest Produces (NTFP) like Mahua flower, Char, Harida and Bahada Tol, etc. They procure NTFP both for consumption as well as selling. But since the last few decades this sector is failing to sustain their lives. The same is found in agriculture sector also. Absence of Irrigation, poor land quality make agriculture non remunerative. In both forest and agricultural produces the people suffer distress sale. Most of the lands in Nuapada district are upland with low productivity. Irrigation facility is almost non-existent (less than 15% against the state average of 30%), land right is not clear and there are many villages which are on encroached land even if people have been staying there since generations. The pre-eighties settlement failed to reach these unfortunate people. In case of forest also the same trend is found. The tribal people have been living in close proximity with nature. Nature forms an integral part of their lives. But there are a number of restrictions imposed upon them so far as their usufruct right is concerned.
There are many villages in this area which fall in the core region of the sanctuary. The tribal are under continuous threat of being displaced. Leaving their forest abode is the last thing these people can accept. In addition to this people are restricted to collect NTFP, move around in the forest, collect fuel wood etc. The situation is similar in other forest area also.
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