The District is situated with in the Geographical Co-ordination of 13° 43' and 15° 14' of Northern latitude and 77° 55' and 79° 29' of the Eastern longitude. The entire District lies in Pennar river Basin. The Major amount of rain falls due to South-West Monsoon. The District is classified as drought Prone area due to Scanty and erratic rain fall. The normal rainfall is 700 mm. The climate is generally warm in Summer.
The important rivers in the District are Penna, Chitravathi, Kundu, Sagileru, Papagni, Bahuda and Cheyyeru.
Salient irrigation projects
Mylavaram Reservoir Canal System (MRC) : Mylavaram Reservoir is constructed across Pennar River with a gross storage capacity of 9.960 TMC near Mylavaram Village in YSR Kadapa District for providing irrigation potential to an extent of 75,000 acres. The construction of the project and formation of canals were completed by the end of 1981-82 and the distributary system was completed by 1985-86. The reservoir consists of two main canals viz. MR South Canal & MR North Canal having an extent of 25,000 acres & 50,000 acres of ayacut respectively.The actual ayacut created is 70,590 Acres.
Pulivendula Branch Canal System : An Anicut was constructed during year 1973 to divert water into Pulivendula Brach Canal system and PBC system is an integral part of TBP HLC system and prorate entitlement of water is 4.40 TMC at TB Dam and 2.00TMC from self catchment.
Kurnool - Kadapa Canal : The Kurnool - Cuddapah Canal Project, a part of Tungabhadra Sub Basin of Krishna Basin is a 143 years old irrigation system in Andhra Pradesh. A private Dutch Company called Madras Irrigation Canal Co.Ltd.,had constructed this canal system during 1863-1870 for providing navigation facility as well as irrigation. The irrigation supplies required for K.C Canal System are diverted from Tungabhadra River by means of anicut constructed across this river at Sunkesula. The Tungabhadra Sub Basin is a part of Krishna Basin.
Galeru Nagari Sujala Sravanthi Project : Since the times of Sir Arthur Cotton proposals were formulated to provide Krishna water to Rayalaseema for drinking and irrigation to eradicate drought and famine. To arrest desertification process in this region, G.N.S.S scheme is an important step contemplated by the Govt. of Andhra Pradesh conceived in G.O.Ms.No.236, dated.22.9.1988.
Telugu Ganga Project : The T.G.P. now under construction is a diversion scheme from foreshore of N.S.R. Sagar project and is intended to supply 15 TMC of Krishna water to Chennai city for drinking purpose besides creating irrigation Potential of 5,75,000 acres of various districts of AP.
Gandikota Lift Irrigation (GKLI) Scheme : The scheme utilizes 4.0 TMC of water from Chitravathi Balancing Reservoir to feed an ayacut of 59,400 acres in 6 Mandals viz. Lingala, Simhadripuram, Pulivenduala, Vemula, Vempalli in Kadapa District and Yellanur in Ananthapur District. Total cost of the scheme Rs.336.20Crores.
Annamayya (Cheyyeru) Project : The Annamayya (Cheyyeru) Project is a Medium Irrigation project constructed across Cheyyeru River, which is a tributary to Pennar River near Badanagadda (V) in Rajampet Mandal of Kadapa District. The location of the Project is about 25km from Rajampet.
Bugga Vanka Project : The Buggavanka Project is a medium irrigation project was constructed across the buggavanka vagu, which is a tributary of Penna river and located at about 10 KM South of kadapa and 3 KM from Ippapenta village in chinthakomma Dinne Mandal of kadapa District. The project was started during the year 1986 and completed during the year 2000. The capacity of the project is 0.506 TMC.
Veligallu Project : Veligallu Project is constructed across Papagni river near Veligallu (V) in Galiveedu (M) of Kadapa District. The contemplated ayacut under the Project is 24,000 acres (2,000 acres in Rabi and 24,000 acres in khariff ) in Galiveedu, Lakkireddi palli and Ramapuram Mandals.
Other projects include Upper and Lower Sagileru projects, Pincha Project, etc