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Fennel: Crop stage-wise IPM

Fennel: Crop stage-wise IPM

Management Activity

Pre- sowing*

Common cultural practices:
• Timely sowing should be done.
• Field sanitation, rogueing
• Destroy the alternate host plants
• Apply manures and fertilizers as per soil test recommendations
• Deep ploughing of fields during summer
• Follow crop rotation
• Sow the ecological engineering plants
• Sow/plant sorghum/maize/bajra in 4 rows all around fennel crop as a guard/barrier crop.
Nutrients • Soil is brought to fi ne tilth by 2-3 ploughing with harrow or country plough.
• For Rabi drilled fennel apply10 of FYM, 36 Kg Nitrogen (N) and 18 Kg Phosphorous (P) per acre. Whole quantity of FYM should be mixed in the soil at the time of land preparation.
• Beds with provision of irrigation channels should be prepared before sowing of seeds to facilitate proper irrigation and intercultural operations.
Weeds • Deep summer ploughing or solarisation during summer
Soil borne pathogens, nematodes and resting stages of insect pests Cultural control:
• Soil solarisation: Cover the beds with polythene sheet of 45 gauge (0.45 mm) thicknesses for three weeks before sowing which will help in reducing the soil borne pests.
• Apply organic amendment viz., mustard, castor or neem cake @ 0.8-1.0 tonnes/acre.


Common cultural practices:
• Use tolerant/ resistant varieties.
• Select healthy, certified, and weed seed free seeds
Nutrients • Half dose of N (18 Kg/acre) and full dose of P (18 Kg/acre) should be applied as basal dose.
• In zinc deficient areas, apply zinc sulphate @ 8 Kg/acre.
Weeds • Sowing/transplanting should be done in lines to facilitate hoeing and weeding operations during vegetative stage.
• Adopt recommended agronomic practices like timely sowing, proper spacing irrigation etc. to obtain the healthy plant stand.

Vegetative stage

Common cultural practices:
• Collect and destroy crop debris
• Avoid water logging
• Judicious use of fertilizers
• Install light traps in and around the fields
• Avoid any stress to the crop as much as possible
• Enhance parasitic activity by avoiding chemical spray, when 1-2 larval parasitoids are observed
Common mechanical practices:
• Collect and destroy disease infected and insect infested plant parts
• Collect and destroy eggs and early stage larvae
• Handpick the older larvae during early stages of the crop
• Handpick the gregarious caterpillars and the cocoons which are found on stem and destroy them in kerosene mixed water.
• Use yellow sticky traps @ 4-5 trap/acre
• Use light trap @ 1/acre and operate between 6 pm and 10 pm
• Install pheromone traps @ 4-5/acre for monitoring adult moths activity (replace the lures with fresh lures after every 2-3 weeks)
• Erect bird perches @ 20/acre for encouraging predatory birds such as King crow, common mynah etc.
• Set up bonfire during evening hours at 7-8 pm
Common biological practices:
• Conserve natural enemies through ecological engineering
• Augmentative release of natural enemies
Nutrients • Apply remaining 18 Kg of N in two equal splits of 9 Kg each as top dressed at an interval of 30 days and 60 days after sowing.
Weeds • The crop should be kept free from weeds for initial 40 days by adopting 2-3 hand tool weeding. The 1st weeding and hoeing should be done at 20-25 days after sowing and 2nd and 3rd at 40 and 60 days after sowing.
Aphid and thrips Cultural control:
• Spray pressurized water
• Use yellow and blue sticky traps @ 4-5 traps/acre for aphid and thrips, respectively, before flowering.
Biological control:
• Release Coccinella septumpunctata @ 2000 beetles/ acre (2 releases at 15 days interval)
Cutworm Cultural control:
• Attracting cutworm larvae using rice bran – heaps of rice bran should be placed in several places in the late afternoon. They can be removed from the rice bran on the next day and destroyed.
• Flood field prior to planting whenever possible farmers can consider temporarily flooding fields, particularly on severely infested fields.
Leaf eating caterpillar/gram pod borer Cultural control:
• Grow intercrops such as cowpea, onion, coriander, urdbean in 5 or 4:1 ratio
• Rotate the fennel crop with a non-host cereal crop i.e. cucurbit, or cruciferous vegetable.
• Use of ovipositional trap crops such as marigold @ 100 plants/acre 1 row of marigold for every 18 rows of fennel (marigold seedling of 45 days should be planted along with fennel transplanting)
• Collect larvae from marigold flowers and destroy them.
Biological control:
• Release egg parasitoid Trichogramma pretiosum @ 50,000 adults (in the form of parasitized card) /acre / week.
Leaf (Ramularia) blight • See in common cultural practices
Fusarium wilt Cultural control:
• Avoid water stagnation
• Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Powdery mildew • Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Damping off Cultural control:
• Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Collar rot Cultural control:
• Avoid water stagnation in the field.
• Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices
Root rot Cultural control:
• Crop rotation with non-susceptible hosts will reduce populations of Rhizoctonia in the soil.
• Avoid crop rotations with sugar beets if there is evidence of Rhizoctonia in the field. Crop rotations with dry beans may also increase incidence of disease.
• Protective seed treatment and good seedbed preparation can reduce root rot.
• Earthing up of soil around stems promotes lateral root growth and lessen the effect of root rot on older plants.
Leaf spot Cultural control:
• Avoid water stagnation.
• Follow the common cultural, mechanical and biological practices

Reproductive stage

Nutrients • Incorporate crop residues in soil immediately after harvest
Weeds • Remove left over weeds before shedding of seeds to prevent further spread of weeds.
Insect- pests & disease management • Same as in vegetative stage

Storage insect pest

Cigarette beetle Mechanical control:
• Sticky traps baited with the female sex pheromone,
• Store grains in gunny bags with moisture proof lining
• Synthetic serricornin is used in commercially available cigarette beetle traps
Drugstore Beetle Mechanical control:
• The drugstore beetle sex pheromone, stegobinone (2,3-dihydro- 2,3,5-trimethyl-6-(1-methyl-2oxobutyl) -4H-pyran-4-one) is used in commercially available traps and lures
• Sticky traps baited with the female sex pheromone, stegobinone, can be used to monitor for adult beetles
Cigarette beetle Mechanical control:
• Sticky traps baited with the female sex pheromone
• Store grains in gunny bags with moisture proof lining
• The commercially available cigarette beetle traps with synthetic serricornin
Drugstore beetle Mechanical control:
• Use commercially available traps and lures with the drugstore beetle sex pheromone, stegobinone (2,3-dihydro-2,3,5-trimethy l-6-(1-methyl- 2oxobutyl) -4H-pyran-4-one) is used in
• Use sticky traps baited with the female sex pheromone, stegobinone for monitoring adult beetles
Note: Pesticides dosages and spray fluid volume are based on high volume sprayer
*Apply Trichoderma viride/ harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens as seed/seedling/planting material, nursery treatment and soil application (if commercial products are used, check for label claim. However, biopesticides produced by farmers for own consumption in their fields, registration is not required).

Source: NIPHM and Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage

Last Modified : 2/12/2020

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