The diversity of building construction in different parts of India is a manifestation of the use of locally-available eco-friendly materials, adaptation to local weather and climatic conditions, and the resources and culture of the region. Natural lighting, ventilation, optimal space utilisation, and efficiency of energy processes is integral to the modest shelter construction.
India is now undergoing rapid urbanisation, and people yearn to live and work in planned localities with well-designed road network, electricity and water supplies, communication infrastructure, sewerage and space for schools, hospitals and recreation. Guidelines are available for town planning and green buildings for efficient lighting, ventilation and use of solar energy. Landscaping and trees not only provide soothing feeling but also moderate the climatic factors.
Build and construct as per development control regulations or building bye-laws.
Design buildings which have integrated architecture relevant to local climate to save energy.
Adopt green building practices.
Leave adequate setbacks from the boundary of plots.
Adopt soft landscape for parking and sidewalks.
Plan and design basements without disturbing groundwater table.
Use locally available material for building construction.
Design proper storm water drains and connect to rainwater harvesting wells.
Adopt energy efficient electrical equipment – use LED bulbs and star rated equipment.
Install rooftop solar panels and solar water heating systems on all buildings.
Adopt proper air ventilation to minimize use of Air Conditioners.
Adopt acoustic materials in buildings to avoid noise.
Adopt proper plumbing system to recirculate and reuse waste water.
Design and construct additional vertical green in the buildings.
Adopt passive solar building design to reduce electricity consumption.
Don’t block/construct on any natural stream even if it is seasonal and flows only during monsoon.
Don’t fill low lying or natural depression areas for construction, consider these as areas to be avoided.
Plan green areas along natural channels, integrated with low-lying areas and natural depression, to save the city from flooding and allow these to act as rainwater harvesting areas.
Design sewage and storm water network separately and ensure both don’t mix.
Design and integrate cycle tracks and pedestrian tracks during road designing.
Plant native trees, shrubs and creepers, maintaining multi-tier plantation while designing green belt.
Plant native air purifying, drought-resistant species in green areas.
Plan and execute Sewage Treatment Plant and Waste Management Areas from design stage itself.
Designate and allocate separate areas for waste to be given to recyclers, and biomass waste to be converted to manure.
Plan and provide adequate dustbins for segregated waste collection.
Planners may design Green Buildings observing: Health and Safety, Water Efficiency and Recycling, Light Efficiency, Energy Saving, Reduction of CO2 emissions, Good Air Circulation and Internal and External Environmental Balance, use of Renewable Energy, use of low Energy Material and local materials.
Planners may also take into account provisions of : the Energy Conservation Act, 2001; the Energy Conservation Building Code, 2017; National Mission on Sustainable Habitat, 2010; Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA); and Indian Green Building Council (IGBC), etc. to maximize use of natural lighting, reduce environmental impact of building on surrounding trees, using the natural contours of the land without much cutting and filling.
Design buildings which minimise the demand on non-renewable resources and maximise utilisation efficiency of the resources when in use.
Planners may discover and use ideas from Indian Heritage buildings on the use of local materials.